35th anniversary of the GLONASS system
October 12, 2017 marked 35 years since the day when the formation of the Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS started. The system’s space segment is based on navigation satellites designed and built by
The first satellite for the GLONASS systems was launched into orbit on October 12, 1982. This Glonass satellite (Cosmos-1413) in its flight was accompanied by two full-scale mass models of navigation satellites in order to practice a group launch scheme of this type of satellites.
Today the orbital constellation of the GLONASS system embodies 24 satellites orbiting the Earth at altitudes of some 19 100 kilometers with an inclination of 64,8° and sidereal period of 11 hours 15 minutes and 44 seconds. The GLONASS system replaced a first-generation satellite system based on LEO Tsiklon and Tsikada satellites. The GLONASS system has many advantages, including high integrity and availability of navigation signals, global coverage of the Earth surface, high accuracy of positioning and timing data.
Currently the GLONASS constellation is comprised of modernized Glonass-M satellites and next-generation Glonass-K satellites – all designed and manufactured by ISS-Reshetnev Company.
Satellite navigation services which are available to millions of users owing to the GLONASS system help ensure national security, transport safety, effectiveness of geodetic survey and construction activities as well as many other civil and special applications.